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history of YADAVS

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posted June 12, 2008 - 10:14am
The history of the Abhirs, Ahirs and yadavas of Ancient Bharat Varse_1
In According to the Hindu mythology, The Yadvas are descendants of Yadu who was eldest son of Yayati and was banished from ruling by his father because he refused to fulfil the wishes of his father and became a rebel. Yadu and his descendants started ruling in outskirts of the mainland, viz small islands. It is assumed the reference in scriptures of Jambudwepa is in memory of these islands. Later on Yadus entered the mainland overthrowing many Puru rulers.Presently they are known by my names.Gope means mystique stemming from Shiva (Also called Gopeshwar or lord of mysticism) and emulated in Bhagavad Gita, Yaduvanshis are descendants of the ancient Yadavs. Abhir (also known as Abhira or Ahira) means fearless and have got most ancient historical references dating back to Abhira kingdom of saraswati valley,they spoke abhiri(ancient sanskrit) till buddhist period .Some scholars believe Abhira identity was used by Yadava residents of Holy Land (like Saraswati Valley where they lived fearlessly)and separate identity emerged because of their gradual alienation because of many reasons some of which are saraswati going down the earth and fall of Dwarka[1].Some scholars see connection to jews of these abhira through biblical city ophir.Yadavas were possesors of great mysical knowledge is confirmed in Bhagwad Gita itself which says-same knowledge was given to Manu(first man on earth),surya and ichavaku(ancestor of lord Rama) at very ancient time.It is believed Abhira were the link between eastern and western religions.

Yadvas are described as the descendants of Yadu, the eldest son of King Yayati, whose father removed him from the succession because he rebelled against Yayati's wishes. Yadu and his descendants started ruling in places that are assumed to be referred to in the Hindu scriptures as Jambudvipa. Later on, the Yadus overthrew many Puru rulers. According to the Bhagvad Gita, Yadavas were possessors of great mystical knowledge, as far back as Manu, and much knowledge was also given to Surya and Ikshavaku in far ancient times. According to Dharmic mythology, Jarasandh, Kamsa's father-in-law, and king of Magadha attacked Yadavas to avenge the killing of Kansa. Yadavas had to shift their capital from Mathura (central Aryavart) to Dwaraka (on the western coast of Aryavart) on the Sindhu.

Abhira, which is considered to be a subgroup of Yadava caste today, is assumed to be different from ancient Yadavas. Linkage is obscure and views vary from scholar to scholar. The term was used for cowherds initially but has been extended to include Yaduvanshi and Nandavanshis too by its corrupt version Ahir. Abhira means "fearless" and appear in most ancient historical references dating back to the Abhira kingdom of the Saraswati Valley, who spoke Abhiri until the Buddhist period.[2] Analysis of Hindu scriptural references of the Abhira kingdoms has led some scholars to conclude that it was merely a term used for Holy Yadava Kingdoms. In Bhagavatam, the Gupta dynasty has been alled Abhir
The Kshatriya religion was propounded by Krishna and no reference is found before him. We only find Rajnya as the term alternatively used for it (Bhagwad Gita is emaciated form of hidden knowledge-Gope-which has its root in Shiva). Later on many Kshatriyas were made based on the philosophy of this religion as revealed in Bhagavad Gita. Prominent members among the ancient Yadavas are:

* Vasudeva father of Krishna
* Krishna
* Kunti sister of Vasudeva and mother of Pandavas and
Karna
* Kamsa a tyrannical king of Mathura, who was killed by
Krishna
* Ugrasen father of Kamsa

The legend further states that Jarasandh, Kamsa’s father-in-law, and king of Magadha attacked Yadavas to avenge the killing of Kamsa. Yadavas had to shift their capital from Mathura (central India) to Dwaraka (on the western coast of India) on the Arabian Sea. Yaduvanshis are among the five most ancient Aryan groups of Bharata. They mostly follow Hindu religion, and are located in different parts of India, Nepal, and Bangladesh.

Major Yadav clans currently include

* Krishnauth (claiming direct lineage from Krishna)
* Manjrauth
* Gaur (also called Goriya, and mentioned in the
Mahabharatha) derived from sanskrit "guh" meaning
mystical and "ur" meaning home or abode (one who is the
abode of mystical powers).
* Ahirs (variously called Ahira and Abhira) are divided
into three major clans:

1. Yaduvanshi
2. Nandavanshi
3. Gwalvanshi

Also Known as

* Abhirs
* Ahirrao
* Ahirs
* Bhatis
* Gope
* Gaurs
* Ghosals
* Gollas
* Gowdas
* Kurubas
* Pradhans
* Rawals
* Rauts
* Raos
* Surabhirs
* Surasena
* Souryasaini
* Yadavas
* Yadavalu
* Behera, Pradhans in Orissa
* Bharwad in Gujarath
* Bhatrajus (Andhra Pradesh)
* Dhangars (in Maharashtra and Karnataka), having 108
clans
* Edayar (Tamil Nadu)
* Gaurs (also called Goriya, and mentioned in the
Mahabharata)
* Gawlis
* Gadri / Gadariya
* Gaddi
* Golla
* Gouda (Orissa)
* Jadam
* Jambavas
* Jadon
* Kalchuri
* Kone [The Yadava king name] Tamil Nadu
* Konars (Tamil: ?????? (in Tamil Nadu and Kerala)
* Kurubas or Gollas (in Karnataka)
* Krishnauth (claiming direct lineage from Lord Shri
Krishna)
* Kurubas (Karnataka)
* Kondayankotth-Tirunelveli-Tamilnadu
* Maniyani (in Kerala)
* Manjrauth (linked with Jarasandh)
* Mandal & Bhagat (Bihar)
* Oraon
* Pradhans
* Puhanian
* Rauts
* Sadgops (in Bengal)
* Souryasaini
* Saini
* Surabhirs
* Surasena
* Taljunghi
* Thatte
* Yadavas
* Yadavulu
* Jadeja
* Bhati
* Banaphar
* Servai, Tamil Nadu
* Vadukayar, Tiruvnelveli in Tamil Nadu
* Deshwal (some city in U.P)

the major groups called castes many bear names derived from the principal professions they follow or the crafts they practice, for example, the cattle-breeding group takes the significant name of Gauli, derived from a Sanskrit word for cow. The names of the shepherd castes seem to be derived from words meaning sheep. Such is at least the case with Gadaria from 'gadar', on old Hindi word for sheep. Many others of these major groups called castes bear merely tribal or ethic names. Such are for example: Arora, Gujar, Lohana, Bhatia, Mina, Bhil, Dom, Oraon, Munda, Santal, Koch, Ahir, Mahar, Nayar, Maratha, Gond, Khond, etc.

Some early inscriptions, dated 1078 and 1090, have implied that the Hoysalas of Mysore were also the descendants of the original Yadava clan, by referring to the Yadava vamsa (clan) as Hoysala vamsa. But there are no records directly linking the Hoysalas to the Yadavas of North India. Calling it 'poetic fancy', William Coelho, author of Hoysala Vamsa, 1950, argues that there is no evidence of even a tradition that traces back their lineage to one of northern origin. S.U. Kamath argues that it was a common practice in royal families of medieval South India to build puranic genealogies. However, J.N. Singh Yadav, a famous historian, gives the following account in his 'YADAVAS THROUGH THE AGES', " The Hoysalas ruled illustriously for over three centuries and have left in the country imperishable monuments of art and culture. They were family of kings who ruled over practically the whole of the kannada country at the height of their power. They scheduled the hill tribes known as Malepas in the Western Ghats and they assumed the title 'Maleparoleganda'. The account of their origin can be traced in some of their inscriptions. They claimed Sosevura (Sasakapura of sanskrit writers) as their birthplace. This place has been identified with Angadi of Mudigere Taluk in chikamanglura district. It has been mentioned as the seen of the incident between Sala and the tiger. When Sala,' an ornament of the Yaduvamsa' (Yaduvamsojvala tilakan) was worshiping the goddess Vasantike of Sasakapura, a tiger came from the forest. The holiman Sodutta, who was there gave him his fan saying 'Poysala(Strike, Sala). Sala killed the tiger. From that time the name of Poysala become the designation of the Yadava kings. Almost the same account, though differing in certain details, is found in many of their inscriptions. According to annother version, when Sala was hunting along the slopes of the Sahya mountains (or the Western Ghats), he was astonished to see a hare (SKt. Sasa) pursuing a tiger, while he was walking alone saying to himself, 'This is heroic soil', a holy muni near by, being afraid of the tiger, called out 'Poy-Sala' and before it could proceed the length of a span Sala slew it with his sword. It is after this incident that the place came to be known as Sasakapura.The founder of the Wodeyar dynasty, Vijaya, also claimed descent from the Yadu and took on the name Yadu-Raya.

"The Pandya kingdom generally associated with the Pandus of the Mahabarata covered the districts of Madura and Tinnivelly as well as certain portions of south Travancore."

"It was noted that the pastoral people(Ayar) of the mullai land in Kongu formed the major component of the Vellalar community of the medieval period.It is the Vellalar of Kongu were nothing but the pastoral people of Kongu, ofcourse,with some additions. However, We come across references to Idaiyar of kiranur, alias Kolumam Konda Cholanallur, Kon from the same place, and Yatavar in two epigraphs from Chevur. Further, there are also references to Tiruvayappadi nattar, which indicate the supra-local activities of the herdsmen discussed in chapter. The presence of the herdsmen, with the titles as found in the macro region, may be explained as survivors of the pastoral people of the pre-chola period who were reluctant to integrate themselves in the new setup or new additions.

Yadav ( not to be misconstrued with Ahirs) is the Rajput clan directly claiming descent from Yadu in the great epic Mahabharat. Lord Krishna was born in Yadu tribe. Ahirs ( a cow herding cast in Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajsthan of India used to rever the lord Krishna, a born Kshatriya. The Ahirs believe that their ancestors walked together with Lord Krishna. Though most Ahirs now use Rajput name of Yadav clan, they are not related in any way to Rajput clans of Yadu/ Jadon Rajputs of Karauli, Dholpur etc in Rasjsthan, UP, Jadeja Rajputs of Gujrat and Bhati Rajputs of Jaisalmer. No matrimonial alliances of Yaduvanshi Rajputs are held with so called Ahir, cow herding cast. As per annals of the earstwhile rulers, Yaduvanshh Rajputs are Chandravansi. History works of Smith and James Tod can be relied in this regard. Moreover, in the records of British empire, which is the most reliable record, Ahirs are altogerhter different lots. As per the most authentic 1931 Census condcuted by the British Indian Governement in India, which was the only census conducted on the basis of castes prevalent in India at that time, Ahirs with so many gotras were different from the Yaduvanshis. The fact that Lord Krishna was born to Yadu kshtriyas is borne out in the Mahabharat according to which HE was the son of Vasudeva and Devaki and for fear of being killed by Kamsa of Mathura, Vasudeva had taken him to Nanda Baba and Yasoda who belonged to Ahir caste, a cow herding caste.These so called Ahirs became his followers. Only Since last 30 years, suddenly, the politicians from Ahir caste started using surname " Yadav". As per Rig veda and Various Purans and many historical works available in India, Yaduvanshi and Chandravanshi are Yadus( Jadon found in western UP, Jadeja of Gujrat, Bhatis of Rajsthan, jharejas, Banaphars of Mahobas, Dabi ( Rajsthan) Kharbad Rajput of Udaipur; Khagar of Atri Gotra found in districts of jhansi, Hamirpur, Jalon of UP, Hoysal of Dwar samudra whose capital was Belapur, , Sighel Rajput( Kashyap gotriya) found in Azamgarh district of UP and Chhapra, Bhagalpur, Mujjafarpur district of Bihar are some of the Yaduvanshi Rajputs and are recongnised as such by all the Rajput castes/clans in India.Yaduvanshi Rajputs in UP have Thikans in Aligarh,Awagarh of Etah UP, Somna,Hasnagarh, Kole ( Aligarh), Secunderabad, Shamasabad, Ghiror and mustafabad in Mainpuri. Raja Balwant Singh of Awagarh, a Jadon Rajput, set up Raja Balawant Singh College in Agra and helped Guru Rabindra Nath Tagore in setting up Shantinketkan University. Dullipsingh of Jamnagar after whom is named Dulip trophy in Cricket, Ranjitsingh after whom is named Ranjit trophy in Crciket are Yaduvansi Rajputs of Jadeja/ Jadon clan of Rajputs and are classified as one of 36 clans of Rajputs in the history and in his work by James Tod also. Chandrchud singh of Aligarh who is hero in Indian cinema is Jadon Rajput.These Yaduvansi Rajput clans do not marry the Ahirs! Yayati's first wife Devayani bore a son named Durvasu ( or Rigvedic Turvasus tribe. The descendents of Durvasu are called Durvasu Rajputs and Chandravansi. Yayati's second wife Sharmishta gave birth to eldest son named Drahayu. The Descendents of his are called Drahayu Rajputs who ruled in Bengal, Assam and Tripura and still found there. Anu Rajputs who are descendents of Anu, second son of Sharmistha, second wife of Yayati, set up Ushinar shivi, Kakaya pradesh etc. As per annals and governement records of British period, Ahirs are shown as differetn caste and in no way connected with the Yaduvanshi Rajputs!

Yadavas are the single largest community in India, estimated to constitute more than 19% of the Indian population. In terms of sheer numbers, this translates to 200 million people, prompting some people to state that Yadavas are not merely a community but a "nation" in themselves. Through numerous political parties, such as the Samajwadi Party, Rashtriya Janata Dal, Janata Dal (United), Janata Dal (Secular) and Tamil Makkal Desam (Tamil Nadu), this caste has considerable political influence, especially in the governments of India's most populous states, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Madhya Pradesh.

Yadavs, though being Kshatriyas, in certain parts of India are classified by the respective governments as Other Backward Classes, or OBCs. This classification stems from their prevailing general economic and educational condition. The Yadavas are linked to Krishna and several ruling families, such as the ancient kings of Prayag, the Yadavas of Devagiri, the Nandas, the Wodeyars of Mysore and more recently that of Rao Tularam of Haryana, one of the leading figures of the First War of Independence (1857) in India.

Yadavs are the purest form of all aryan blood anywhere in the world, if you look into historical point of view alone there are various indicators that yadavs are the only arya clan that has refrence in pre-vedic rig vedic period or post indus valley that is abt. 2500 BC,they along with the bharata clan(i.e various kings mentioned in epic mahabharat) were two of most powerful tribes or clans of aryans most of the stories are mythological the scale of the war as depicted as depicted in the epic was highly romanticized but excavations have confirmed that were skirmishes in large number at different places right at the time when aryans were trying to settle the plains of indus and ganga, while the bharta tribe mixed with the natives, dravidian, tribal groups, and the pre-aryan people i.e the people of harrapan and indus valley culture and they formed a new nation. BHARAT(official name of india in constitution) i.e. INDIA.

most of the people in india today belong to mixed lineage of ancient bharat tribe and the natives of pre-aryan india. brahmans and baniyas(vaishyas). are the cross between bharats and the natives. shudras were pure blooded natives or tribals, so brahmans, baniyas(vaishya), and shudra were of natives tribal lineage this shows in their practising of some of the pre aryan gods like shiva.

yadavs were the only known khshatriyas(i.e warriors) in early vedic times, only there name is mentioned in all the scriptures found around 3rd millenium B.C. none of the rajput clan has mentions in aryan text not even at times of alexander, neither at chandra(candra) gupta, nor at asoka, kanishka, guptas, samudragupta, harsha, nowhere they have their names mentioned one times so they cant be the ancient noble fearless mighty warriors 'khshatriyas' it can only be "ahir" or "aheer" or "abhir" meaning fearing the none, or nothing can make them feel uneasy, or the one who never stress abt. anything.

rajputs got mentioned in history only in 1st millenium BC so its unfair to say yadavs are rajput, rajputs descended from huns of asia very late. jus before rise of islam.

jatt,gujjars, rao, chaudhary ,phatans both hindu and muslims evolved out of yadavs family as most have this millitary inclinations and closely related to warfare activities always since middle ages jus after coming of islam. thes are basically yadav tribes as they have also been proved to be having pure blood aryan descendency by DNA testing of castes of south asia. which got influenced in the moghul muslim period.

Afhganistan and NWFP and present day punjab in pakistan has seen yadav king porus (puru) who stunned alexander with his bravery as when he was captured he was asked by alexander that how should be he treated he said treat me like a soldier.

for thousand years yadav groups ruled most of the NWFP(pakistan), Afghanistan, central asia, khazakhstan, uzbekstan, kirghizstan, tadhzikstan, even some part of tibet china and nepal. kanishka was said to be of mongloian - yadav descendancy

Most of the yadavs today belong to this ancinet warrior aryan caste unlike the bharats, most yadavs descended from one common group of warrior clan abt. 3rd millenium B.C.

they spread to most of the country using different last names all of them are member of one common yadav aryan family.

Allahabad iron pillar inscription of Samudragupta (fourth century A.D) mentions the Abhiras as one of the tribal states of west and south west India, who paid homage to the emperor. A fourth century (A.D) inscription found in Nashik speaks of an Abhira king, and there is proof that in the middle of the fourth century the Abhiras were settled in eastern Rajputana and Malwa. Similarly, when the Kathis arrived in Gujarat in the eighth century, they found the greater part of the country in the possession of the Ahirs. The Mirzapur district of the United Provinces has a tract known as Ahraura, named after the Ahir, and near Jhansi, another piece of country was called Ahirwar. The Ahirs were also kings of Nepal at the beginning of the Christian era. Khandesh and the Tapti valley were other regions where they were kings.

This indicates that the Abhiras, who rose to political prominence in the second century B.C., had a chequered political career until the fourtheenth century A.D when their importance was over-shadowed by the Mughals, but even during the Mughal period the Ahir and Golla rajahs were a power to be reckoned with. The Gavlis rose to political power in Deogarh, on the Chhindwara Plateau in the central provinces. The Saugar traditions traced down the Gavli supremacy to a much later date, as the tracts of Etawa and Khurai are held to have been governed by the chieftains till the close of the seventeenth century.

Although the Abhiras constituted a distinct ethnic group, they spoke diverse regional dialects. The language of the Ahirs was known as Ahirani in Khandesh, resembling Marathi. While the Ahirs of Kathiawad and Kachh have a dialect which resembles Gujarathi. Abhira bhasha is in fact considered to be Apabhransha. In the ninth century B.C., it had become the language of the people, and was spoken from Saurashtra to Magadh, and Shastri proves that poetry was composed in the language around the sixth century B.C. Suryavamsi mentions the following two dialects in addition to the ones above--Gaddi, which is currently the dialect spoken in Gadderan, on the outskirts of the Chamba and Kangra hills, and Gandi, spoken in some parts of Madhya Pradesh. Abhiri as a dialect has been recorded by Sanskrit poets such as Bharata and Dandin. Yadav , notes that the dialect the people of Ahirwal in Haryana speak, has a resemblance to Rajasthani, and Grierson, considers Ahirwati a branch of eastern Rajasthani and western Hindi.

Legends of the cowherd Krishna and his dances with cowherdesses are mentioned in the Sangam classics. The term Ayarpati (cowherd settlement) is found in Cilappatikaram. It is argued that the term Ayar has been used for the Abhiras in ancient Tamil literature, derives Abhira from the Tamil word Ayir which also means cow. He equates the Ayars with Abhiras, and Suryavamsi treats this as evidence of migration of the Abhiras to the south in the first century A.D.

Thus, linguistic evidence is used to support the argument that the Abhiras spread to different parts of India, and that they retained different but related cultural traditions. The most common denominator, as was pointed out earlier, was a descent from the Yadu dynasty and their association with cattle.

Religious Seats of Yadavas

Besides chiefdoms and jagirs, the Yadavas had peethams (seats) granted to them by virtue of their religious powers. For instance, there were fourteen seats (peethams) among the Yadavas of Warangal according to a sanad granted in 1425 (Shaka Samvat), by Sree Pratapa Rudra, Maharaja of Warangal, to sree Kondiah Guru, as the head of the fourteen seats. Subsequently when Bhagyanagar was founded by Sultan Abdulla of Kutub Shahi in A.D. 1560 the rights of the yadavas were acknowledged and recognized, and the name Golkonda was substituted for Manugal.

According to the charter awarded by the Sultan Abdulla of Kutub Shahi in 1071 Hijri, Kondiah built the fort for the Sultan by using his charisma in resolving the mystery of the site, and also discovered for him gold coins buried underground. In return, the Sultan gave him the Charter conferring upon Kondiah the rights and privileges due to the head of the fourteen seats, and of twelve classes of Gollas and two classes of shepherds (Kuruba Gollas). Kondiah, although a follower of Basaveshwara (Lingayat), was the head of the Yadava Peethams. Perhaps the Gollas at this time were under the influence of Veerasaivism, although they were incorporated into the Yadava category.

Political influence

Through numerous political parties such as the Samajwadi Party, Rashtriya Janata Dal, Janata Dal (Republic), Janata Dal (Communal) and Makkal Tamil Desam (Tamil Nadu), the Yadavs have considerable political influence, especially in the North Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Laloo Yadav became the chief minister of Bihar and Mulayam Singh in UP.

Famous Yadavs

* Lord Krishna
* Rao Tula Ram (1857 freedom fighter)
* Veera Pandya Katta Bomman,
* Jijabai( mother of Shivaji)
* Kanakadasa
* Jijabai (mother of Chhatrapati Shivaji)
* Rao Tula Ram (1857 freedom fighter)
* Pran Sukh Yadav (fought along with Rao Tula Ram Yadav
at Nasibpur)
* Rao Balbir Singh(King of haryana)
* The Wodayars of Karnataka
* Yadava of Deogiri now Daulatabad
* Mulayam Singh Yadav, UP politician
* Laloo Prasad Yadav, Bihar politician
* Anand Yadav, Marathi writer
* Rajendra Yadav, Hindi novelist and Editor of "HANS"
* Raghuvir Yadav
* Rajpal Yadav
* B P Mandal,(author:Mandal commission)
* Babulal Gaur( C.M, Madhya Pradesh)
* Swami Ramdev (Yoga Teacher)
* Siddaramaiah, Former Deputy Chief Minister of Karnataka
* Yogendra Yadav (Well-known psephologist, political
scientist and T.V. commentator)
* Suresh Kalmadi President Asian Olympic Association
* Madhu Yadav Sampati(Partner AvignaSoft, Inc and founder
of North America Yadavs Association)
* Rajesh Yadav
* Akhilesh Yadav, politician
* Lalu Prasad Yadav, politician
* Devendra yadu, Samajwadi Party, Chhatisgarh
* Jairam Singh Yadav, politician
* Damodar Yadav,State Chief of M.P. Samajwadi Yuvjan
Sabha.
* Namdev Jadav, Victoria Cross recipient
* Pran Sukh Yadav, military commander in Anglo-Sikh wars
* Umrao Singh, Victoria Cross recipient, World War II,
Burma Front
* Yogendra Singh Yadav, Param Vir Chakra recipient,
Kargil War
* Panne Lal Yadav, wrestler
* Hemulal Yadav, cricketer
* Jai Prakash Yadav, cricketer
* Jyoti Yadav, cricketer
* Khashaba Dadasaheb Jadhav, India's first individual
Olympic medalist
* Shivlal Yadav, cricket player
* Vijay Yadav, cricket player
* Simhachalam, billiards & snooker player of Andhra
Pradesh and also an international referee in billiards
* Santosh Yadav
* kasiyadav {tamil actor)
* Anand Yadav (Marathi writer)
* Parbhu Dayal Yadav, artisan
* Raghubir Yadav (film actor)
* Rajendra Yadav (Hindi novelist and editor of "HANS")
* Rajpal Yadav (film actor)
* Mahendra Yadav (TV Journalist)
* Rituraj Yadav (Sports Journalist)
* Santosh Yadav, mountain climber
* Naveen Kumar Yadav (Software Engg.)
* Abhishek Yadav (Software Engineer)

Author:

26 Comments:

At 2:34 AM, Anonymous saty kam said...

if possible please tell me full history of yadavs since vedic period to modern or at least medieval period. besides this i want information on economic history of hoysal kingdom,metallurgy in ancient and medieval period,inscriptions of bihar. i need these for research purpose. please inform me on my email address.
saty kam, bhagalpur district ,bihar
stykam@rediffmail.com

 
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Is it really authentic???
In most of the sentences, the word JADAUN has been substituted by the word YADAVA.
Has been copied from somewhere else.

Please elaborate & explain.

 
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